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A QUICK GUIDE TO CONTINUOUS WRITING (SPM ENGLISH)

A QUICK GUIDE TO CONTINUOUS WRITING (SPM ENGLISH)



TYPES OF COMPOSITIONS

  • NARRATIVE

  • DESCRIPTIVE

  • FACTUAL

  • ARGUMENTATIVE

  • REFLECTIVE


1. NARRATIVE COMPOSITIONS

  • Stories

  • Stories which begin with a given sentence

  • Stories which end with a given sentence


A narrative is a story. It has to have a beginning, a series of incidents leading to a conflict or climax and a suitable ending.

Tips on Writing Narrative Compositions

  1. Write a suitable introduction. Introduce your characters. Provide a setting and start the story.

  2. Make your characters lively and interesting. Limit your characters to about three or four. Your reader should be able to identify the main character and the minor characters.

  3. The incidents you relate must lead to a conflict and later to a climax.

  4. Resolve the conflict and end the story.

  5. Make your story realistic. You can do this by one of the following methods:



    1. Give actual names of places, roads, etc

    2. Use dialogues

    3. Give your story a time frame.

    4. Bring in actual events, for example, Merdeka Day, the SEA Games, etc



    Some Types of Opening

    1. Describe the background to your story
      This sets things off in a straightforward manner; establishing clearly your characters and situation.
      Example:
      There was once a poet who spent all his days shut up in his dark and shabby rented room on top of a coffin shop.


    2. Describe the setting
      Describing the setting will create the mood for your story.
      Example:
      Towards two o’clock, the huge theatre was thronged – floor gallery, boxes and stage were all crowded. So many people were gathered in front of the box offices that the management had to telephone the police, fearing a riot.


    3. Use direct speech
      This can be a lively way to begin, especially if your character says something that grabs attention.
      Example :
      “May God wipe out my whole family if I am lying! “ she whispered, raising hand in oath.


    4. Use sounds
      Using words which convey sounds is an easy way to start on a dramatic note.
      Example :
      Plop! The lead at the end of the fishing line dropped into the sea.




    2. DESCRIPTIVE COMPOSITIONS

    Describing people

    1. When describing people, select only the significant details.


    2. Mention some of the following:
      - build, facial features, clothing, height, hairstyle, age, size of the person, distinguishing marks or scars.


    3. Mention character or personality traits, habits, behaviour and relationship with others.


    4. Write about a person you admire
      Composition outline
      Introduction
      - who the person is
      - how you know the person

      Body
      - physical description
      - character/personality
      - habits
      - important incidents
      - relationship with you and others
      - why you admire him/her

      Conclusion
      - what the person stands for
      - what the person means to you

      Describing places or scenes
      When you describe places, pay attention to the following aspects :
       Type of place
       Location
       Distance
       Attractions
       Facilities/Amenities
       Accommodation

      When you describe scenes, pay attention to sensory description.

       Sounds
       Smell
       Taste
       Touch
       Sight


      A description of a village scene on a hot sunny day


      3. FACTUAL COMPOSITIONS

      The main purpose of factual composition is to inform. So, to write factual compositions, you must have accurate information about the topic being discussed.

      Information about a topic
      Causes and effects
      Analysis of problems, issues and situations and proposals for solutions

      Some examples of factual topics:
      • Pollution – causes and effects
      • Tuition – reasons for its popularity
      • Tourism – how to promote it
      • Deforestation – causes and effects
      • E-learning – benefits
      • Dental care – importance
      • Smoking – health effects
      • Mobile phones – health hazards


      4. ARGUMENTATIVE COMPOSITIONS

      An argumentative composition requires you to develop or justify a given argument or to put forward a particular point of view.

      An argumentative composition requires you to do one of the following :
       take one side of an argument and present your stand clearly
       put forward your argument – for and against – and then make a stand


      5. REFLECTIVE COMPOSITIONS

      A reflective composition is one in which you express your personal thoughts, opinions feelings. To write reflective compositions, you need to have a good command of the language which will enable you to express yourself clearly.

      Examples of Reflective essays:
       My dream house
       Things I treasure
       My ideal husband of wife
       Memories
       The qualities I would look for in a friend
       My greatest problem


      Boey KN, SMK Kamunting

Comments

#1 | 7 on October 08 2009 17:44:12
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SmileThank you, Miss Boey. I have gone through your article and I must say that the tips you have given is good. Hopefully the students will make it a point not just to read but to download and print it as an important form for their reference.
#2 | shameni on November 08 2009 20:11:34
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THANK U,I HAVE READ THE ARTICLE.TEACHER I THINK THE ECOTOURISM,DEFORESTATION AND POLLUTION TOPICS IS VERY POPULAR.

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